The History Of Wales
Wales is described as one of the oldest countries in the world where there is evidence of human habitation up to 200,000 years old. European Celts, who arrived in Wales around 600 BC, brought with them the famous Welsh distinctive features, manifested in the speech, hospitality and rich imagination of the locals. The subsequent stay here the Romans entered into myths as a period of good governance. Perhaps the feeling has arisen due to the chaos of the next period, when Wales was captured by Irish pirates and Scots (representatives of the tribes of the Britons). The Christian religion was brought here in the 5th century from Ireland. The first and most famous Christian educator and Baptist of the local population was the monk Davy (this name later under Norman influence turned into David, who became the main Saint of Wales). Early Christianity was superimposed on a strictly observed system of Celtic beliefs, in which its sacred springs, saints and hermits were revered.
The period from V to XI century was characterized by Anglo-Saxon influence and invasion; around the same time the Britons began to call themselves Welsh. It is believed that king Arthur, the legendary symbol of hope and inspiration, led the struggle of the Britons with the Anglo-Saxons in the VIII century. More significant and related to the same period was the activities of Offa, king of the neighboring Anglo-Saxon Kingdom of Mercia. He built a dam to mark the border between Welsh and Mercians. Today, Offa’s Dyke is the most wonderful tourist destination in the country.
Viking invasions in the IX and X centuries were the reason for the unification of independent and well-developed by the time the Welsh kingdoms. Ironically, though the threat of capture forced Wales to develop as a major unit, it also subjected it to further dependence on the English crown. In 927, the Welsh kings recognized the Anglo-Saxon king of Adelstan as their Lord and protector. During the next century, William the Conqueror took full advantage of this precedent by placing influential and militant feudal barons along the Welsh border.
In the XIII century attempts were made to turn Wales into an independent state, and Llewelen Last in 1267 was able to achieve from the English king Henry III of his recognition as the first Prince Of Wales. However, the boundless joy of the nation was short-lived, as a militant follower of Henry III, Edward I forced his neighbor to swear allegiance as a vassal. In 1302, the so-called “crown affront” was committed when the title of Prince of Wales was given to the eldest son of the English monarch. Later Edward said his government is the construction of a number of massive castles and the English colonists the right to establish a town and County in the English style.
The last armed opposition to English rule was formed in 1400, when Owain Glyndwr made a statement that he had the right to be called the head of Wales, because he is a descendant of the princes of Northern Powis. His rebellion was crushed by Henry IV, whose brutal executions left a bitter mark on the people of Wales for many years.
Until 1730, Wales was calm, but that year it was engulfed in the industrial revolution, resulting in new features, grafted Methodists. The development of coal production and copper, shale and tin mining has led to a phenomenal increase in the population, a rapid change in the components of the country from rural communities to urban mining and industrial centers. The smoky cities were hotbeds of nonconformism, nationalism, the trade Union movement, liberalism, and support for the labour party. Changing the status of Wales has matured, and they slowly but surely happened: Pleyd Cymru, the Welsh national party, was formed in 1925; the Welsh language was officially recognized in 1942; Cardiff was named the official capital of Wales in 1955; in 1964, the British government introduced the position of Minister of state for Wales; currently Pleyd Cymru has a few places in the House of Commons. Welsh culture and language have also acquired their own identity; in 1982, Wales had its own television channel, broadcasting in the Welsh language.
Wales joined in the 90-ies of the twentieth century, burdened with the problems of their coal and steel industries, and finished the decade with a functioning Welsh Assembly and the revived sense of national identity. But despite the development programs, unemployment remains on a large scale. The current policy of the labour government is more effective for Wales than that of the conservatives, but the likelihood of Wales becoming a separate nation and gaining state independence remains weak.