history of Scotland
Scotland was originally inhabited by people engaged in hunting and gathering, who came from England, Ireland and Europe about 6000 years ago. They brought the Neolithic era with them to Scotland, and gradually developed agriculture, livestock, trade, and organized society and culture. The remains of unusual tombs, stone monuments and examples of architecture, such as those found on the Orkney Islands, show that this civilization was, in fact, progressive. Among the people who arrived later were people from Central Europe who brought with them the technology of making bronze, while the Celts brought the technology of making iron. The Romans were unable to subdue the stubborn inhabitants of this region and their failure is symbolized by the construction of the Hadrian Wall. Christianity came here in the form of St. Ninian, who established a religious center in 397. Later, St. Columba established the Christian center on ion in 563, which to this day is a place of pilgrimage and spiritual refuge.
Approximately to the 7th century the population of Scotland consisted of constantly warring tribes of the Picts and Scots who speak Gaelic language in the North; the Norwegian invaders in the territory of the Islands; of the Britons and Anglo-Saxons in the lowlands Srednerossijskih. By the 9th century, the Scots had gained dominance over the Picts, the only heritage of which today is a number of stones-symbols that can be found in many parts of Eastern Scotland. In the South, Anglo-Norman feudalism was slowly taking over, and by the early 13th century, English Bishop Walter Coventry could claim that the Scottish court was “French in race, style of life, speech, and culture.” Despite its aggressiveness, tribes Sredneshotlandskih lowlands easily accustomed to feudalism and began to create powerful family clans.
The inhabitants of the mountain regions, however, were completely different. In 1297, William Wallis ‘ forces defeated the English in the battle Of Stirling Bridge, but after several subsequent battles, Wallis was betrayed and eventually executed by the British in London in 1305. He is still remembered as the embodiment of patriotism and as a great hero of the resistance movement.
Robert the Bruce struck a subsequent blow to Scottish independence when, a year after Wallis’s defeat, he killed the enemy and crowned himself king of Scotland. In the same year, he faced off against the British, but lost the battle of Methven and Dalry. He had to go into the shadows and stay there until 1314, after which in the battle of the Bannockburn river, he eventually defeated the British. This was a turning point in Scotland’s struggle for independence. Between the highlanders and the inhabitants of southern Scotland there was a significant barrier, which is symbolically indicated by the mountainous border between Fort William and Inverness. Residents of the southern part of Scotland, who spoke on lallana were less severe and more cultural life than speaking the Gaelic language of the highlanders, thought they were looters.
In the 16th century it was not clear who should be the heir to the throne because of English and French roots in the pedigree of Scottish kings. Fierce resistance to the British and constant quarrels of monarchs led to the actual civil war, very few monarchs died of their own death. The 17th century was also marked by civil war, incited by the looming problem of religious reformation. Despite all the anti-English sentiment, the 1707 Allied Act, by hook or by crook, was able to persuade the Scots to dissolve Parliament in exchange for the preservation of the Scottish Church and legal system.
Was made famous attempts to replace the Hanoverian kings of England with Catholic Stuarts. Supporters of James did not have sufficient support outside the mountain areas, as the inhabitants of the lowlands considered them Catholics. James Edward Stuart, known as the old pretender to the throne, the son of the exiled English king James VII, made several attempts to rise to the throne, but in 1719 fled to France. In 1745, his son, Prince Charles the Handsome, a young pretender to the throne, returned to Scotland to claim his father’s crown. After his death in 1745 in Culloden, the government banned mercenary armies, the wearing of plaid skirts and the playing of bagpipes. Coinciding with the inexorable changes caused by the industrial revolution, the prohibitions caused the disappearance of the entire lifestyle and the destruction of the inhabitants of the mountain regions.
In the South, the industrial revolution brought with it the prosperity of cities and an increase in population, the emergence of industries such as cotton and shipbuilding, as well as rapid trade. The development of urban life coincided with the intellectual heyday, Scottish enlightenment, as people directed the energy previously wasted on religion, to organize their leisure and profit. Literature flourished. The way of life of the rich became more and more bourgeois, while the situation of the poor worsened, they suffered from typhus epidemics and other problems in overcrowded apartments. Cities became larger after one of the harshest events in the history of the already darkened North – the purification of mountain regions, which began in 1700 and lasted more than a hundred years. Overpopulation, potato crop failure and the collapse of the algae industry forced the owners to drive people off the ground. Many Scots migrated to North America, New Zealand and Australia, carrying their reputation for thrift and hard work. The few remaining on the ground were squeezed into tiny areas called farms.
Industrial flourishing lasted during the First World war, but the world depression of the 1930s dealt him a mortal blow. Aberdeen was the only city where the market developed in the 20th century, thanks to the discovery of oil and gas in the North sea in 1970. Persistent economic problems, unemployment, rural outflows and lower levels of health and housing than in England have led to a loss of confidence in the government. However, the desire to break the Alliance with England was stronger than in previous years.
Labour Scotland struggled through the 80s and 90s of the twentieth century under conservative British rule, which did not take into account the desire for self-government of Scotland. The decisive victory of Labour in the 1997 General election resulted in the removal of all Scottish conservative seats and the birth of the Scottish Parliament, which first met in 1999. The new Parliament building is being built on Holyrood in Edinburgh and will be completed in November 2003. The labour government has already approved the granting of limited power to Scotland, so the emergence of an independent Scotland in the 21st century is no longer such a pipe dream.