Stonehenge: mysteries, hypotheses, and legends
Among the hundreds of stone structures inherited by the British from their forefathers, Stonehenge (literally — “hanging stone”) occupies a special place. The giant size (the weight of some blocks reaches 45 tons), mystical, almost magical form (from a long distance they resemble huge fangs) and still unknown to mankind destination make Stonehenge not only a symbol of dark power, but also an endless source of research.
When I arrived at the Hanging stone, there was no mystery in the air: a Sunny day, huge boulders and groups of Japanese tourists with colorful brochures about the “magic and mystery” of Stonehenge. In General, the building itself did not impress me — the attention was attracted by another. Literally a hundred steps from Stonehenge clearly visible intricate geometric shapes, as if trampled in the field. Not believing his eyes, come closer and realize that “the pattern on the grass” (that’s the scientific name for this phenomenon) is similar to a thumbnail and detailed with perfect accuracy: there is no blade of grass, blade of grass clearly does not deviate from the intended course so my first assumptions about the jokes of the locals disappeared. Although the reason for suspicion was: in the XVII century, people created “pictures”, removing the turf from the soil. Preserved to this day “canvas” — a giant (109 meters) and a very beautiful white horse and 55-meter giant with a club, the first mention of which dates back to the XVI century. “Drawings” in the area of Stonehenge is of a different kind: the soil is not touched, but the structure of the stem inside the circles is changed, as if the grass is not crushed by someone’s weight, and she “lay” in the right order. As I later learned, such drawings now and then arise in these places, the excitement of reporters and researchers around the world. What is the meaning of these patterns, who and why left them to us and why they appear near Stonehenge, and so having a bad reputation?
Stonehenge is one of the most mysterious places on the planet. Who and why created the Great stones, still can not say anyone. Initially, the building was a circle of 30 vertical stones (weighing 25 tons each), connected by bridges, inside which there were five pairs of blocks with crossbars at the top. Today, some giant blocks are missing, but the building has not lost its grandeur.
According to scientists, Stonehenge began to build about XIX centuries BC (about 4000 years ago) and finished the construction only after a few hundred years. In quarries huge blocks were cut down and dragged or on the river were delivered to a place of a construction where on meter broke into the earth. Two types of stones were used in the construction: strong boulders, from which the outer circle of the structure is formed, and softer stones, which are part of the ore and coal seams and therefore are called blue. It is the blue stones that form the inner circle of Stonehenge and it is in them that many see the reason for the magical power of the entire building. And when scientists, as usual denying any metaphysics, came to the conclusion that the blue stones were delivered not from somewhere, but from the prezel Mountains, no one had any doubts — is it possible only because of the pleasant color to drag huge blocks for 200 kilometers (this distance separates these mountains from Stonehenge). One can only guess what efforts and sacrifices cost the ancient people, who own only a rope and a stick, to move at least one of the stones to the construction site. There are many assumptions about who built the impressive even us, children of progress, construction. According to the very first theory, giant blocks erected druids to perform ritual ceremonies during the winter and summer solstice. But these Celtic priests appeared on Albion shortly before the Christian era, when the shadow of Stonehenge already protected travelers from the heat.
The author of another hypothesis, Leon Stover is sure that the druids have nothing to do with the monument, because they built a “Hanging stone” Mycenaeans to protect against the Atlanteans. According to this American Professor, the Atlanteans were not inhabitants of the legendary Atlantis, and ancient Chinese soldiers who died during the natural disaster in about 1400 BC, But this theory crumbles before our eyes: just look at Stonehenge, to make it clear that no one with it, no one is protected. Too much distance separates one stone from another to be able to hide from the enemy.
The legend of king Arthur gives us another reason to think. According to legend, in a heavy battle fell about 300 worthy soldiers, and the king wished to erect on their grave the greatest of monuments. The wizard Merlin, the hero of Celtic folklore, miraculously moved the stones from Ireland, where, in turn, they were taken from Africa to southern England.
Oddly enough, but much more attention should be the assumption that the construction of Stonehenge involved aliens. Despite the seeming fantastic, there are many reasons to trust this theory. First, in the period from 3000 to 1500 BC in Europe, and especially in the British Isles, there were many mysterious, nothing like buildings. And not the house, and not the temple — and the stones forming absolutely correct geometrical figure( most often a circle). Handwritten evidence that it was created by the ancients, no, but the modern man their shape resembles a UFO. After several decades of speculation and speculation, when it was even suggested about the one-eyed giants-Cyclops, throwing stones for fun, science for a long time seemed to forget about Stonehenge.
But about 25 years ago, an English researcher put forward a completely new hypothesis, according to which Stonehenge is not the temple of the sun, and the ancient astronomical Observatory, with which four thousand years ago, people could confidently determine the onset of lunar and solar eclipses. Giant stone arches, according to the author of the idea Gerald Hoskins, show the path that the sun describes in the sky.
It marked the points of the rising sun and the moon above the horizon. If we assume that the ancient astronomer was in the center of the circle, then it is in them alternately appear luminaries. The point of sunrise changes every day (due to changes in the tilt of the earth’s axis), but the path of the luminous ball in the sky every year is the same. Ancient people watched his movement from year to year and then recorded their knowledge in the “Hanging stone”. Stone arch, in which the sun appears on the summer solstice, wider than all the others – so the builders have identified days with increased energy activity.
However, weaknesses in this theory are not less than in the others. However, it was she who pushed the story of Stonehenge to a new era — humanity has finally realized that it is not just stones.
Stonehenge has always attracted tourists. Each of the visitors of the “Hanging stone” tried to touch the riddle: who knows, suddenly the stories about the magic power — not a fairy tale, and luck will accompany all life. But the pilgrimages, which turned into an epidemic, were limited by the authorities of the United Kingdom. Enthusiasts and Ghost hunters was nearly destroyed Stonehenge to the ground: who the stone is on memory athletic who will leave the autograph. Archaeologists and researchers demanded to block access to the building, citing the fact that soon from the monument of antiquity will be only a pathetic wreckage. Scientists wanted more than just to protect Stonehenge. They were haunted by a mystery that, despite progress and high technology, humanity has not been able to take away from the past.
Whatever theory about the true purpose of Stonehenge may have prevailed, one thing is clear: it is not the wreckage scattered by the careless hand of the Cyclops, and the mystical symbol of antiquity, the meaning of which we have not yet been given to unravel.
In different centuries, the blue stones of the complex disappeared for a while, and then appeared in the same places. In 1900, due to the carelessness of tourists, two stones of the complex collapsed. The owner of the building sir Edward Antrobus sets the fence and appoints the entrance fee. Druid followers refuse to pay, but the court recognizes the rights of the owner.
1915 — Stonehenge sold, and the new owner gives it to the state, which, in turn, continues to exploit the stones. At that time, numerous druid sects had already United to perform joint rituals on the territory of the hanging stone.
2000 — on the night of June 20-21 (summer solstice) for the first time in 16 years, Stonehenge is open to visitors who wish to watch the sunrise there. Several thousand followers of the cult of the druids came to the heart of the structure, where according to their beliefs concentrated special power.